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The unwanted reversal of the flow of water in a plumbing system. Backflow can allow contaminated water to enter the clean water supply. Common ways to prevent backflow are Air Gaps, Check Valves, and RPZ (Reduced Pressure Zone) Valves.


A blockage in a pipe that impedes the flow of water.


Expansion Tank
A device that allows for the expansion and contraction of water in a closed plumbing system.


Any device that is connected to a plumbing system, such as sinks, toilets, and showers.


A sealing device used to prevent leaks between pipe joints.

See entries: Leak


Hose Bibb
An outdoor faucet or tap connected to a water supply.


Unintentional escape of water from a pipe or plumbing fixture. Commonly caused by:
  • Pipe corrosion
  • High water pressure
  • Poorly sealed or fitted pipe joints and connections
  • Clogged pipes
  • Freezing temperatures
  • Deteriorated seals
  • Appliance leaks
  • Tree root infiltration
  • Water quality
  • Faulty water pressure regulator
  • Loose or worn faucet parts
  • Cracked or damaged pipes
  • Old or outdated plumbing systems
  • Improper installation


A type of trap shaped like the letter "P" to prevent sewer gases from entering a building.
Cross-linked polyethylene, a flexible and durable material used for plumbing pipes.
Plumbing vent
A pipe that allows air into the plumbing system to prevent airlock.
Pressure regulator
A device that controls the pressure of water in a plumbing system.


Septic system
A self-contained sewage treatment system used in areas without a connection to a centralized sewer system.
Sewer line
The underground pipe that carries sewage and waste water from a building to the main sewer system.
Shutoff Valve
A valve that stops the flow of water in a plumbing system.


Thread Seal Tape (Teflon Tape)
A thin tape used to seal threaded pipe connections.
A U-shaped pipe designed to prevent sewer gases from entering a building.


A device used to control the flow of water in a plumbing system.


Water Heater
A device that heats water for domestic use. Some common type are:
  • Storage Tank Water Heater
  • Tankless (On-Demand) Water Heater
  • Heat Pump Water Heater
  • Solar Water Heater
  • Condensing Water Heater
  • Point-of-Use Water Heater
Water Meter
A device used to measure the volume of water flowing through a plumbing system. Water meters are essential components in both residential and commercial buildings to accurately monitor and record water consumption for billing purposes.

By monitoring water usage, property owners and utility companies can identify patterns, detect unusual consumption, and address potential leaks or wastage promptly.
Water Pressure Regulator
Also known as pressure reducing valves (PRVs), these are devices used in plumbing systems to control and limit the pressure of water flowing through the pipes. These devices are essential because excessive water pressure can lead to various problems, including damage to plumbing fixtures, appliances, and even potential leaks.
Water Purifier
A device or system designed to improve the quality of water by removing impurities, contaminants, and undesirable substances. The primary purpose of a water purifier is to enhance the safety and taste of the water that flows through the plumbing system, making it suitable for consumption, cooking, and other domestic purposes. Some commonly employed ways to purify water are:
  • Filtration
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection
  • Water softening

See entries: Water Softener

Water Softener
A device that removes minerals from water to prevent scale buildup.